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सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु

सत्यं वद । धर्मं चर


Bhagavadgeetaa is a holy book which deals with the day-to-day life and covers every aspect, every field of work in the ancient and modern world. The holy book has solutions to all the worldly issues. It is highly motivational book, which many management gurus of modern day follow. Though it is a discussion between bhagavaan krishna and arjuna before the kurukshetra war, the teachings of bhagavaan krishna to arjuna look so natural for every common man to relate himself in his day-to-day life. Lot of research has been done on this holy book which has 18 chapters. Understanding of bhagavadgeetaa is an essential part of sanaatanadharma.

This book can be termed as authentic personality development workshop. It is an authentic book of mind sciences.

This section of the syllabus imparts the knowledge of the essence of bhagavadgeetaa to the students.

The names of 18 chapters are as follows:

  1. arjuna vishaada yoga-47 shlokas
  2. saankhya yoga-72 shlokas
  3. karma yoga-43 shlokas
  4. jnaana karma sanyaasa yoga-42 shlokas
  5. karma sanyaasa yoga-29 shlokas
  6. aatmaa samyama yoga-47 shlokas
  7. jnaana vinjnaana yoga-30 shlokas
  8. akshara brahmaa yoga-28 shlokas
  9. raaja vidyaa raaja guhya yoga-34 shlokas
  10. vibhooti yogah-42 shlokas
  11. vishvaroopa sandarshana yoga-55 shlokas
  12. bhakti yoga-20 shlokas
  13. kshetra-kshetrajna vibhaaga yoga-34 shlokas (35)
  14. guna-traya-vibhaaga yoga-27 shlokas
  15. purushottama-praapti yoga-20 shlokas
  16. daivaasura-sampadvibhaaga yoga-24 shlokas
  17. shraddhatraya vibhaaga yoga-28 shlokas
  18. mokshasanyaasa yoga-78 shlokas
    1. Total No. of shlokas-700(701) shlokas.
    2. Some books we find one extra shlokam in 13th chapter.

The Situation at  the mahaabhaarata war, which created a platform for bhagavaan to teach the jnaana to arjuna, when arjuna attains the mental condition of complete dejection of mundane pleasures, realizes that he is carried away by internal conflict between dharma and adharama, bandhu preeti/affection towards relatives and gurus etc., –moha or also termed as bandhu dharma, forgetting his kshatriya dharma, for which he arrived to battle field keeping saakshaat bhagavaan krishna as his charioteer. Here kshatriya dharma is svadharma and bandhu dharma comes under adharma- Even blind dhrutaraashtra, whose greed for hastinapura throne was the root cause for mahaabhaarata war, starts with words “dharmakshetre kurukshetre—” indicate the importance of dharma.

1st chapter.

bhagavaan starts geetaa with advocating for qualities of fearlessness and not being sorrow. The  teaching of bhagavadgeetaa starts with “ashochyaananvashochastvam—2nd chapter 11th shlokaand closes with “—-maa shuchah”-18th chapter 66th shloka.

geetaa also emphatically ascertains that aatmaa does not die, only body dies, and aatmaa is eternal and is paramaatmaa/parabrahma within every living being in the universe.

While confirming that jnani need not do any karma, geetaa also ascertains that human has only responsibility to do his karma/action as per his dharma and result is in the hands of paramaatmaa. “karmanyevaadhikaaraste maa phaleshu kadaachana, maa karma phala heturbhooh maa te sangostvakarmani”. You have choice over action, but never with reference to the result of action. May you not try to be the cause of the result of the action and donot have any inclination towards non-performance of the action/karma. (B.G.2.47)

It also promotes theories of sthitaprajnata/one whose intellect is well established in the self and not having desires which is root cause for getting anger-krodha and which leads to the downfall of human beings in all respects by losing intellect –buddhi. B.G.2.55 and 2.62,63)

It stresses the need of human beings to cultivate the differentiation between aatmaa and shareera, ie., termed as aatmaa, anaatmaa viveka, i.e aatmaa has no birth and death unlike shareera and hence is Reality, the paramaatmaa and perceiving this concept is jnana and the sat chit aananda. Balance of mind/sthita prajnata and principle of detachment are required tobe cultivated to be a jnaani. 2nd chapter.

bhagavaan explains the superior status of jnaani and jnaanayoga at the same time stresses the need to understand that ignorant human cannot stop doing karma and karma maarga is easy, superior, and correct step by step method for common man to practice and attain moksha by becoming eligible for gaining aatmaa jnaana. karma cannot be avoided by any human. bhagavan will take invariably birth / avataar to protect dharma in the universe whenever it loses its balance and comes under glaani/ the disorder, to set it right. “yadaa yadaa hi dharmasya ……” – 3rd.4th and 5th chapters.

bhagavaan in 4th chapter ascertain that he has created 4 varnaschaaturvanyam mayaa srushtam guna karma vibhaagagashah” the natural qualities of them by birth or by saadhana and samskaara. Bhagavaan declared that HE has divided human beings into four varnas(divisions) depending upon their qualities and actions they are doing. – (B.G, 4.13).

Dhyaanayoga/meditation method, which is also a path to reach paramaatmaa, is detailed in aatmaa samyama yoga- 6th chapter.

Practical way to proceed for attaining the jnaana is explained in jnaana-vijnaana yoga and akshara-brahmaa-yoga – 7th and 8th chapters.

om ityekaaksharam brahma—’ om is the letter that indicates the ultimate shakti parabrahma. -declared by bhagavaan – (B.G. 8.13.)

In geetaa, bhagavaan assures that HE is contended with whatever is offered to HIM, with devotion, – patram, phalam, pushpam and toyam (water) – 9th chapter.

bhagavaan also enlightens us how to recognize him in every section of the srushti. The creation is His vibhooti. bhagavaan in every living being is to be recognized. – 10th chapter.

bhagavaan also shows to humanity the four-dimensional form of vishvaroopam/kaalapurasha/parmaatmaa in the bhagavadgeetaa. It is trikaala swaroopa-kaala purusha and entire universe. – 11th chapter.

bhagavad geetaa is the very essence of all the vedic knowledge and provides guidance for living a life of freedom with perfect action, peace, and happiness. It shows the path to attain mokshaa by following principles of action/karma3rd chapter karma yoga, mediatation/dhyaana- 6th Chapter, devotion/bhakti- 12th Chapter, and ultimate Knowledge/jnaana- 2nd chapter, 13th chapter, and 18th chapter. bhagavad geetaa preaches the most important doctines to attain mokshaa as nishkaama karma and sharanaagati.

bhagavaan educates how to do saadhanaa to attain ekaagrata and avyabhicharinee bhakti to attain the Knowledge/jnana and qualities of jnaani- 12th chapter.

bhagavaan enlightens on the aspects of differentiation between jada and chaitnaya, prakruti and purusha, kshetra and kshetragna, qualities of shareera and aatmaa, anitya and nitya, agnaana and gnaana at various stages of geetaa. Bhagavaan teaches aloud His paraa and aparaa prakruti- 13th chapter.

bhagavaan in number of occasions stressed that moksha can be achieved by any individual-jeeva baring difference in vrutti, varna, jaati, linga and vyavasaaya. Requirement to achieve moksha is basic quality of jnaana which is explained in number of occasions in bhagavadgeetaa. (B.G.13.7 to11)

sattva guna- stresses the need for doing selfless karma and one should do desireless karma to win over- rajo guna and to win over tamo guna – one should do karma without surrender to nidra/sleep and laziness.

It also promulgates the theory of thrigunas (sattva, rajas, tamas) based on which karma the human beings take new life every time they take birth and influence every action, they do during lifetime. And stresses the need for the thrigunaateeatasthiti ie shuddha sattva sthiti is only state to attain gnaana ie., mokshaa, by suitably diverting individual intellect buddhi, manas and indriyas towards aatmaa instead of mundane vishayas perceived by indriyas. – 14th Chapter.

The aatmaa when influenced by trigunas and gets attached to shareera, it is termed as jeevaatmaa and when the realization of jnaana occurs, it is called jeevanmukti and then it is called aatmaan as long as in shareera with this realization and when it leaves the body after the death, becomes purushottama by understanding the oneness with parabrahma. The entire perceivable world is called kshara purusha and the cause of the universe is called akshara purusha. The ultimate reality is beyond and above these two is called purushottama. – 15th Chapter.

The qualities to be developed by everyone as a student/youth, cultivating the nature of rejecting raaga and dvesha and develop vairagya, by promoting daivic qualities and discarding aasuree qualities is taught in 16th Chapter.

HE declares shaastram is ultimate pramaanam in the event of conflict in decisions on any matters of sandigdha/dispute “tasmaatchchaastram pramaanam te kaaryaakaarya vyavastitau” –16th chapter.

bhagavaan explains the three types of, shraddha, aahaara, yaaga, daana and tapas which promote satva, rajas amd tamo gunas with in the human-17th Chapter.

The difference in type of tapas between shaareerika, vaachika and maanasika and the trigunaatmaka, (sattva, rajas and tamas) status for, yajnam, daana, tapas, karma and jnaanam is clarified in 17th chapter.

shraddhaa the faith is the main tool to attain the goal of every human being ie mokasha ie the liberation from the cycle of birth and death. –17tt chapter.

bhagavaan closes 17th chapter explaining the importance of OM (for starting any veda mantra), TAT (For starting any selfless yajna or karma) and SAT (for starting and doing any uttama karmaacharana).

bhagavan in clear terms ascertains that “yajna daana tapah karma na tyaajyam kaarya meva” not to giveup at any cost. –18th Chapter. (B.G-18.5)

bhagavaan explains nivrutti marga and pravrutti maarga and difference between them.

bhagavaan explains in clear terms the status of jnaata, jnaanam, jneyam, and karta, karanam and kriya in all three gunas, sattva, rajas and tamas.18th Chapter.

Similarly explains the nature of buddhi, dhruti, sukham/pleasure in all three stages of sattva, rajas and tamas. –18th Chapter. (B.G, 18.18-39)

antahkarana nigraha(shama), controlling indriyas(dama), deep meditatation (tapas), internal and external purity (shuchi), pardoning other’s mistakes(kshamaa), leading dharmic life and straight forwardness (aarjavam), knowledge of scriptures (jnaanam), scientific gnaanam-anubhava of gnaana(vijnanam) having faith in vedas, and paramaatmaa and existence of celestial lokas, practical knowledge of paramaatmaa(paratatvaanubhavam-aastikyam), –natural actions for braahmin. brahma karma (B.G.18.42)

bravary(shooratvam), fame (keerti), courageous(dhairyam), competence(saamarthyam), not going back from war out of fear of life (yuddhechaapyapalaaayanam), charity as per dharma (daanam), administration of law and order -establishing dharma in the society like bhagavaan (eeshvarabhaavam) etc are natural actions for kings(kshaatravyam)kshaatra karma (B.G. 18.43)

Farming (krushi), Protecting cows – gorakshana and samrakshana (goraksha) commercial activities as per dharma(vaanijyam), -natural actions for vaishya varna.

Serving and supporting all the above three varnas (paricharyaatmaakam karma)-natural actions of shoodra varna. (B.G.18.44).

bhagavaan also detailed the lifestyle for gaining the firm establishment in the self – knowledge. (B.G18.49 to 54).

mahrshi vyaasa closes geetaa by declaring at the end as follows:

यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः ।

               तत्र श्रीर्विजयो भूतिः धृवानीतिर्मतिर्मम ॥

yatra yogeshvarah krishno(chaitanyam-sharanaagati)

yatra paartho dhanurdharaH(action-nishkaamakarma)

tatra shreervijayo bhootih dhruvaaneetirmatirmama

(all wealth and success and ultimate mokshaa will be there positively).

bhagavadgeetaa is a well formatted book for any student to groove himself to become a perfect human being and a good citizen and to be successful in life and reach goal of jeevanmukti and moksha.

 Hence bhagavadgeetaa shall be digested by every human during his bharmacharya/student stage before entering gruhasta stage or mundane stage of life, by which one can lead a happy and comfortable life.

Reference Material Q&A on bhagavadgeetaa chapter wise based on “Geetaa Makarnadam of shuka Brahmaa (Brahmaaa (Brahmaa/ब्रह्मा)/ब्रह्मा) shramam”. In Telugu.B