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सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु

सत्यं वद । धर्मं चर

Yoga Darshana

yoga– Self Discipline for Self-Realisation- The word yoga is derived from the samskruta root – yuj, means “to unite”. The yoga system provides methodology for linking individual consciousness with the supreme consciousness. yoga system, that is considered as one of the six systems of vedic Philosophy, is patanjali yoga sootra, which is closely allied to saankhya Philosophy. maharshi patanjali compiled yoga sootras mentioned in vedas and other scriptures.  The yoga system attempts to explain the nature of the mind, its modifications, impediments to growth, afflictions, and the method for attaining the biggest goal of life i.e., kaivalya. patanjali yoga sootras comprises of 4 divisions namely, i) samaadhi paada (Concentration – Spiritual Uses), ii) saadhana paada (Concentration – Its Practices), iii) vibhooti paada (Results of Powers) and iv) kaivalya paada (Salvation).Few sootras are summarised below.

  1. i) samaadhi yogayoga is restraining the mind-stuff (chitta) from various forms of disturbances (vrutti). योगचित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः(सू-२/2). There are 5 classes of modifications – painful and not painful. वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टा अक्लिष्टाः(सू-५/5). These are right knowledge, indiscrimination, verbal delusion, sleep, and memory. प्रमाणविपर्ययविकल्पानिद्रस्मृतयः (सू-६/6). There is another samaadhi, which is attained through practice of cessation (non-attachment) of all mental activity to obtain liberation. विरामप्रत्याभ्यासपूर्व​ॠ. संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः(सू-१८/18). To others, this samaadhi comes through faith, energy, memory, concentration, and discrimination or by devotion to Isvara. श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृतिसमाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम् (सू-२०/20), श्वरप्रणिधानाद् वा (सू-२३/23).There is yet another sort of concentration (meditation) on the heart that has given up all attachment to sense objects. वीतरागविषयं वा चित्तम् (सू-३६/36).


  1. ii) saadhana paada–Mortification, study and surrendering fruits of work to God are called kriya yoga. तपःस्वाध्धायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि क्रियायोगः (सू-१/1 ). For the practice of samaadhi, one must minimise pain bearing obstructions namely – ignorance, egoism, attachment, aversion and clinging to life. अविद्यास्मतारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशाः क्लेशाः (सू-३/3) the practice of the different parts of yoga, the impurities are destroyed, knowledge becomes effulgent. योगाइगानुष्ठानाद्शुद्धिक्षये ज्ञानादीप्तिरा विवेकख्यातेः (सू-२८/28). yama (non-killing, truthfulness, non-stealing, and non-receiving gifts), niyama (purification and contentment), aasana (firm and pleasant posture), praanaayaama (controlling exhalation and inhalation) pratyaahaara (control of organs), dhaarana (becoming fit), dhyaana (unbroken flow of knowledge), samaadhi (meditation) are 8 limbs of yoga. यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयोष्टाव अ इगानि(सू-२९/29).


iii) vibhooti paada dhaarana, dhyaana and samaadhi when practiced about one object is samyama 􁮢यम् एक􁮢 संयमः (सू 7). The flow of this control of the mind becomes steady by habit. त􁭭य 􁮧शा􁭠तवािहता सं􁭭कारात् (सू 10). By making samyama on the three sorts of changes comes the knowledge of past and future. प􁳯रणाम􁮢य􁭭यंयमादतीतानागत􁭄ालम् (सू 16). karma is of 2 kinds, soon to be fructified and late to be fructified. By making samyama, the yogis know the exact time of separation from their bodies. सोप􁮓मं िन􁱨प􁮓म् च कम􁭅 त􁭜संयमाद् अपरा􁭠त􁭄ानम्. (सू 23). By giving up these comes the destruction of the seed of evil, the yogi attains

kaivalyam. त􁳇ैरा􁭏यादिप दोषबीज􁭃ये कैव􁭨यम् (सू 51). By the similarity of purity between the satva and the purusha, comes kaivalya. स􁱬वपु􁱧षयोः शुि􁳍सा􁭥ये कैव􁭨यम् इित. (सू 56).


kaivalya paada– The actions (karma) of the yogi attained to the state of perfection. (nishkaamakarma) will not bind him as he does not have desires or care for the result but for ordinary man, the works of 3 kind – (black) evil, white (good) and mixed bind him. कमा􁭅शु􁭍लाकृ􁭬णं योिगनः ि􁮢िनधम् इतरेषाम्. (सू 6). When the virtue come, then there is no fear of falling or nothing can drag the yogi down ततः 􁭍लेशकम􁭅िनवृि􁱫ः. (सू – 29). Then all these transformations of the qualities which change from species to species, cease for ever. ततः कृताथा􁭅नां प􁳯रणाम􁮓मप􁳯रसमाि􁳙ग􁭅णु ानाम ् (सू – 31).