Skip to content Skip to footer

सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु

सत्यं वद । धर्मं चर


shikshaa is uchchaarana shaastra (Phonology). It dictates varna, svara, sthaana and prayatna of veda mantras.

While reciting veda, the clarity in pronunciation and tone modulation is very important.  Defective pronunciation leads to drastic changes in the meaning. Hence for learning of veda shabda, physical interaction between teacher and disciple called guru shishya paramapara method of training is mandatory. For learning certain restrictions are to be followed in living conditions concerning, suchi, food, sleep and other healthy habits. These yama niyamas living conditions are also to be trained under a competent guru. This is possible under gurukula system of education only, under continuous supervision of the guru.

There are three types of svara, namely, udaatta, anudaatta and svarita, based on association of vowels in the letters. High pitch pronunciation is udaatta. Low pitch pronunciation is anudaatta. Pronunciation of shabdah in between udaatta and anudaata is svarita.

It is known that there are 48 shikshaa granthas. Primarily-paanini, vyaasa, bharadwaaja, vyaaLa, vyaali, vaalmeeki, kahola, kaalanirnaya, bodhaayana, sarvasammata, siddhaanta, aranya (total 13) known as practicing granthas for shikshaa in general for all veda shaakhaas. While paanini is associated with ruk shaakhaas; naarada, gautami, lomasha, are associated with saamaveda shaakhaas; apishali, saambhu, svara and aatreya with krishna yajushshaakha and naarada associated with atharvavedashaakhaas.

The time required for pronunciation of short letters is called maatra. For long pronunciation time required is two maatras and for plutam, time required is three or more maatras.

       praati shaakhyas are extension granthas for shikshaa. Each veda samhitaa has one praati shaakhyaa.

       These can be called as pre vyaakarana granthas.

        ruk praatishaakhya is also called paarshada sootra written by shaunaka.

vaajasaneya praatishaakhya written by kaatyaayana (different from vaartikaara-kaatyaayana) is for shukla yajurveda. taittareeya praatishaakhya is for krishna yajurveda taittereeya samhita.

saama veda praatishaakyas are pushpasootra by pushpa rushi, and ruk tantra by shaakataayana.