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सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु

सत्यं वद । धर्मं चर

Nyaaya Darshana

Nyaaya tarkanyaaya darshana is one of the most important darshanas from ancient times. To understand the vaidika dharma, knowledge of nyaaya is essential. nyaaya and vaisesika treated as one (समान􁭠तराः). (nyaaya means correct thinking with proper arguments and valid reasoning and known as tarka saastra (The Science of reasoning). It is a system of logical realism. The purpose of nyaaya is critical examination of the objects of knowledge by means of cannons of logical proof and the desired meaning is brought out clearly. नीयते िववि􁭜􁱫तोSथ􁭅ः 􁭠याय. nyaaya darshana develops the power of reasoning and arguing. The word nyaaya signifies investigating analysis and opposed to saamkhya synthesis. nyaaya sootra by maharshi aashaadha gautama is the primary text of nyaaya darshana and spread over 5 chapters and subdivided into 2 with total number of sootras varied from 523 to 532 with different authorities. There are 12 bhaashyas (commentaries) written on nyaaya saastra. For example, gautama’s panchaadhyayi, vaatsaayana’s nyaaya bhaashya, nyaaya vaartika, commentary on bhaashya by bharadwaaja udyotakara, nyaayavartika taatpatparyaatika by vachaspati mishra,taatparya parishuddhi by udayanacharya, etc., keshava mishra’s (13th Century) tarka bhaasha –nyaaya emphasis and annam bhatta’s (17th Century) tarka sangrahavaisheshika emphasis are important to mention and best-known syncretic introductions to navanyaaya (Neo logic). nyaaya Philosophy recognized 16 categories of padaarthas (vishaya) meaning is that by a correct and true understanding, one gets liberated from this world of birth and death.

They are

  1. i) 􁮧माण – Means or instruments of valid knowledge;
  2. ii) 􁮧मेय– Objects of valid knowledge or cognition;

iii) संशय – Doubt;

  1. iv) 􁮧योजन– Purpose or motive;
  2. v) दृ􁳥ा􁭠त-Example;
  3. vi) िस􁳍ा􁭠त – Established conclusion;

vii) अवयव – Members of syllogism;

viii) तक􁭅 –Reduction and absurdism,

  1. ix) िनण􁭅य – Decisive knowledge;
  2. x) वाद -Discussion;
  3. xi) ज􁭨प –Argument;

xii)िवत􁭛ड – Mere destructive argument;

xiii) हे􁭜वाभास Fallacies in reasoning;

xiv) छस – spacious argument;

  1. xv) जाित – Futile objection;

xvi) िन􁮕ह􁭭थान – Clincher.


(1)􁮧माण -The Pramana or the means of right knowledge are :

1) 􁮧􁭜य􁭃च – Perception; 2) Inference – अनुमान; 3) Comparison;उपमान.4)Word orverbal – श􁭣द.

Further there are 2 types of perception that is Ordinary perception – लौ􁳰कक and extra-ordinary perception अलौ􁳰कक.

(2) 􁮧मेय – The instruments of valid cognition are 12 in number namely 1) आ􁭜मन् – Self or Soul;2) शरीर- Body; 3) इि􁭠􁮤य – Sense organ, 4) अथ􁭅 – Objects; 5) बुि􁳍 – Knowledge; 6) मनः Mind; 7) 􁮧वृि􁱫 – Action;8) दोष – Defect; 9) 􁮧􁭜येभाव – Re-birth; 10) फल – Result;11)दुःख – Misery; 12) अपवग􁭅 – Salvation.